What Is NetBIOS – Network Basic Input/Output System?
Definition Of NetBIOS
Standing for Network Basic Input/Output System, NetBIOS is a networking industry standard developed by IBM, Microsoft, and Sytek. It is currently mostly used by Microsoft Windows operating systems to provide certain services to the other network hosts.
NetBIOS provides services associated with the OSI model’s session layer, allowing applications on different computers to communicate over the local network. It also allows the proper transmission of data over the network.
NetBIOS typically communicates on ports 137, 138, and 139.
History Of NetBIOS
- In 1985, IBM first created the NetBIOS protocol for use in Microsoft’s Windows operating system.
- In 1985, Microsoft implemented NetBIOS for MS-Net network technology.
- In 1986, Novell published the Advanced Novell NetWare 2.0, which features its own NetBIOS emulator.
- In 1987, a method called NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) was published to encapsulate NetBIOS in TCP and UDP packets.
- In 1987, after the PS/2 computer went on sale, IBM released a PC LAN Support Program that included a driver for NetBIOS.
- Since its original publishing in a technical reference book from IBM, the NetBIOS API specification has become a de-facto standard.
- The NetBIOS API specification has become a de facto standard since it was first published in IBM’s technical reference book.
Services Of NetBIOS
NetBIOS offers three distinct services:
Name Service (NetBIOS-NS)
Name service is used for name registration and resolution.
It offers the following functions for NetBIOS hosts and groups.
- Add name: This function registers a NetBIOS name.
- Add group name: It registers a NetBIOS group name.
- Delete name: It deletes a registered NetBIOS name or group name.
- Find name: This function can look up and find a NetBIOS name on the network.
Datagram Distribution Service (NetBIOS-DGM)
Datagram distribution service is used for connectionless communication and data transmission.
It provides the below functions.
- Send Datagram: It sends a datagram to a specific NetBIOS name.
- Send Broadcast Datagram: – It sends a datagram to all NetBIOS hosts and names on the network.
- Receive Datagram: This feature can wait for an incoming packet of a datagram from the Send Datagram operation.
- Receive Broadcast Datagram: It can wait and accept a packet from a Send Broadcast Datagram operation.
Session Service (NetBIOS-SSN)
Session Service is used for connection-oriented communication and data transmission.
It supports the following features.
- Call: This feature starts a session to a remote and specific NetBIOS name.
- Listen: It can listen for attempts to start a session to a NetBIOS name.
- Hang Up: It can be used to close an established session.
- Send: This function sends a packet to the computer at the other end of a session.
- Send No Ack: It functions like Send but does not require an acknowledgment.
- Receive: It can wait for an incoming packet to arrive from a Send at the other end of a session.
How Does NetBIOS Work with Applications?
Software applications on a NetBIOS network locate and identify each other through their NetBIOS names. In Windows, the NetBIOS name is separate from the computer name and can be up to 16 characters long.
Software applications on the NetBIOS network locate and identify each other by NetBIOS names. In Windows, the NetBIOS name is distinguished from the computer name, and it can be up to 16 characters long.
Applications on other computers get NetBIOS names through UDP, a simple OSI transport layer protocol based on port 137 for client/server network applications.
The Windows Internet Naming Service provides name resolution services for NetBIOS.
The Windows Internet Naming Service provides name resolution services for NetBIOS. When a client sends a command through TCP port 139 to “call” another client (server), two applications will start a NetBIOS session.
NetBIOS also allows connectionless communication via UDP. The application listens to UDP port 138 to get NetBIOS data reports. The Datagram Service sends and receives the datagrams and broadcasts datagrams.
Wind It Up!
Now, by reading this article, you may have a further understanding of the NetBIOS – Network Basic Input/Output System.
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